B. 1930. In 1950 graduated from the Faculty of the Humanities, University of Warsaw, and began working as assistant lecturer. 1954 – candidate of historical sciences, 1960 – post-doctoral degree (habilitacja). 1971 – associate professor, 1980 – full professor of humanities. 1967 – deputy Dean of the Faculty of History; 1970-1973 – Dean of the Faculty of History. Between 1975 and 1978 Director of the Institute of History at the Faculty of History. Between 1 October 1980 and 8 April 1981 Rector of the University of Warsaw.1989-1991 – Minister of Education in the first non-communist government of the Third Republic of Poland. Member of the Historical Society and many regional societies.